Operation and project management

Operation Management

The branch of management that surrounds the day-to-day tasks of the organization and focuses on overseeing the existing processes, controlling them in a prescribed order and designing and redesigning of new processes in an organization is known as Operations management. This branch revolves around managing inputs and raw materials that come from another source or department, devising a processing mechanism. It would transform the raw materials into finished good while keeping in mind several key performance indicators (KPIs) and standards that were set if the process disobeys any standard then either a corrective action is ought to be taken or the standard is to be revised (greatoperation, 2013). 

Areas Covered by Operation Management

Several domains of Operations Management are normally covered in this jurisdiction (Mohammadi, 2014). Some of the areas covered by operations management are discussed below:

Plant’s Location

The strategic decision in operations management is Plant’s Location. A Long-term commitment is required in order to set geographically static boundaries and dealing with the factors involved with it. It addresses the question about forming the main stage for operations of the organization. It is a key decision, as it requires the most investment in terms of both purchasing land and building a structure for production. Choosing of an inappropriate place to start operations can definitely result in a constant and consistent loss for the organization. As It further require more investment in terms of machinery and plant along with their installation costs. The objective of expansion for the organization should be kept in mind before choosing a particular location for the plant and a hub for all the major operations for the organization. It should have further plan for raw materials, labor input and many other factors along with the provision of changing these small parts of the organization (Pérez-Fortes, 2014).

 

Operation and project management By ABC Date: Operation Management The branch of management that surrounds the day-to-day tasks of the organization and focuses on overseeing the existing processes, controlling them in a prescribed order and designing and redesigning of new processes in an organization is known as Operations management. This branch revolves around managing inputs and raw materials that come from another source or department, devising a processing mechanism. It would transform the raw materials into finished good while keeping in mind several key performance indicators (KPIs) and standards that were set if the process disobeys any standard then either a corrective action is ought to be taken or the standard is to be revised CITATION gre13 \l 1033 (greatoperation, 2013). Areas Covered by Operation Management Several domains of Operations Management are normally covered in this jurisdiction CITATION Moh14 \l 1033 (Mohammadi, 2014). Some of the areas covered by operations management are discussed below: Plant’s Location The strategic decision in operations management is Plant’s Location. A Long-term commitment is required in order to set geographically static boundaries and dealing with the factors involved with it. It addresses the question about forming the main stage for operations of the organization. It is a key decision, as it requires the most investment in terms of both purchasing land and building a structure for production. Choosing of an inappropriate place to start operations can definitely result in a constant and consistent loss for the organization. As It further require more investment in terms of machinery and plant along with their installation costs. The objective of expansion for the organization should be kept in mind before choosing a particular location for the plant and a hub for all the major operations for the organization. It should have further plan for raw materials, labor input and many other factors along with the provision of changing these small parts of the organization CITATION Pér14 \l 1033 (Pérez-Fortes, 2014). Layout of Plant and Handling of Materials The physical arrangement of facilities can be referred to as Plant Layout. It is a containment of different departments, equipment and their work centers. The primary objective for plant layout is to meet the desired quantity with the planned quantity in the most economical way possible. In other words, the optimal arrangement of personnel, space for storage, operating equipment, equipment for material handling and all other activities that support production is known to be plant layout However, Material Handling can be referred as movement of materials from input receiving department through different storages, queues, machine, processes and personnel. It can also be defined as the science and art of moving materials across the organization. This specialized activity rotates around inventory and tends to be focused on the economic handling of the material at hand. It normally takes up to fifty to seventy-five percent cost of the organization, which can be reduced by optimal material handling techniques. Material handling focuses on optimizing quality, reducing both time and financial costs and decreasing the cost and time for deliveries and hence increasing customer satisfaction and retention. So this has become a prime consideration for most departments and organizations CITATION Liu14 \l 1033 (Liu, 2014). Design of Product The act of converting ideas into reality is referred to as product design. It is necessary for the survival of every business to design and develop new products. However, the biggest challenge that an organization faces is to develop new products and to launch successfully them. This process involves identification of need translating into a product and finally introducing it in the marketplace CITATION Def14 \l 1033 (Defining value chain architectures: Linking strategic value creation to operational supply chain design, 2014). Design of Process When viewing an organization at a macro level it is essential to look at processes that are in that particular organization, which makes the design of the product into a product that, is physical and has its existence in this world. This converts raw materials into finished goods and encompasses process and technology selection along with its flow forward CITATION Ros15 \l 1033 (Rosemann, 2015). Control of Production and Planning This process can be defined as advance planning of production, setting the route that exactly sets route from the date and time production starts to its end. It is working on the statement ‘first plan your work and then work your plan.’ It consists of the following major steps. Planning is to decide in advance about the future doing along with the process of what, how, who and when to do it. It bridges the gap between the present and the future. Routing is the selection of the route to do a specific work and to make it as optimal as possible. Scheduling is the key for determining the when part. It determines how long each process of the whole flow should take. Dispatching is connected with starting the process and is primarily a function of actually releasing the product from a particular process.. The last function of following-up is to take into account the growth on each level and analyzing its causes, also comparing it with planned courses CITATION Lar14 \l 1033 (Larson, 2014). Issues discussed in this case of Operations Management The issues discussed in this case are in availability of set of operations on which the whole process of automobile manufacturing is to start, lack of in depth knowledge of the human resource, lack of knowledge for the plant layout along with the location of the plant. Besides these issues there are numerous others, which indicate the lack of experience, in availability of automated systems, a choice between expanding into a current market or to move in the new industry, inflexibility of the workforce and shortage of resources to move in for diversification into a new industry and not staying in the previous one. Explanation of WBS In project management, work breakdown structure is a system for deliverable oriented decomposition of project into small parts. It can be a data, product, or service. Therefore, it a key project deliverable, which can organizes the work of team members in to manageable components. Since the underlying company is operating in the aerospace Industry before, now it is diversification into another industry in wake of financial crises and prevailing recession in the country. This new venture is taking place in automobile industry. All different levels from level 1 to level 4 are formulated according to the planning, design, operations and post operational phases of its feasibility. The first decision, which they took, was to venture into automobile industry, which is the part 1 of the WBS. After this, in level 2, company has to formulate different stages in the development process to post operational aspects of the business. Firstly, in the planning stage, company had to define the requirements, resources and gaps in their planning which is the level 3 and in level 4 in the planning stage company has to find the experts in automobiles, needs top draft the transport and customer requirement, and has to understand the documental requirements to start up this business. They also have to pool up the resources to start up this business, which includes experienced engineers, with higher quality experience. Company also has to formulate a strategy and look into the gaps between the pooled resources and the requirements mentioned above. Once it is observed and analyzed that gaps are limited between requirements and resources acquired by the company to start this venture. In the level 2, company concentrates on the designing of the automobile project. In level 3, company works on designing the automobiles, The raw material required for the process and the process itself. In level 4, company looks into the quality, and features of the automobiles and then avenues and places from where the raw material is acquired is labeled in raw materials. The components are brought from Shrewsbury, castings are done in Iron Bridge, and seals are produced in the Birmingham itself. It also requires that company should document the information available on materials. In addition, company has to recruit the trained workforce or train some at work. It also requires that automated processes used by the company should also be documented. In the next phase at level 2, company has to initiate the operational process, and in level 3 corresponding to this phase, they have to manage the venue, workforce and sort out the transportation contract. In the venue management in level 4, company has to purchase 140 manufacturing units. They have to ensure that necessary modifications and installations are complete and venue is ready to use. In addition, company will need the technical workforce, which either should be experienced or necessary training should be provided. Besides, some workers are to be hired on permanent basis, and some are contractual workers. Besides, company needs to manage the transportation contracts effectively, and efficiently. Company also has to provide the information on supplier’s transporters, on local; constraints and edges. At operational stage, company has to manage the inventory, work phase and conduct process management in level 3. In level 4, company has to conduct the work capacity evaluations, needs top set appropriate KPI’s and analyze the performance of the workers. In addition, mangers have to use just in Time inventory management system, and should manage the level of stocks appropriately. During the operational phase, department managers have to evaluate the performance of the employees in their respective departments. Managers have to analyze the performance in terms of KPI’s. In the last phase, business has to conduct the post operational analysis, at level 2, which consists of results compilation, quality management, and finalization of the product line. Company has to analyze the results and the difference planned, actual results should be investigated, and reasons for gaps are analyzed. This can assist the company to improve at all stages of the manufacturing. Quality can be maintained by comparing the actual results with the set standards, and quality assurance is guaranteed. Finally, all the stock is checked in accordance with the set rules and procedures, and the finished products can be sent to the end users. Risk Matrix Consequence Descriptors Insignificant Negligible Moderate Extensive Significant Persons Not Trained Low Standard Hiring Local Workforce Disputes Large Employee Turnover Automated Process not safe Environment Small CO2 Emissions Noise Pollution Dumping Waste Cars not environment friendly Damaging the environment Assets Stationary wastage Cheap parts wastage Work breakdown High scraped goods Machinery Burnt Reputation Small part missing Medium part missing A piece of inventory missing Quality Deterioration Late Delivery Probability Descriptors Chance Probability Certain Would definitely occur 80% - 100% Likely Can occur under most circumstances 65% - 80% Possible May or may not occur 35% - 65% Unlikely Most likely it would not occur 15% - 35% Rare Has the least probability that it would occur 0% - 15% The table given below describes the risk matrix for the company. The consequence and probability descriptor are also provided. If one looks into the technical ability and experience of the work force in charge at the company at its beginning stage, it could be argued that probability of them not trained is insignificant and there is a negligible risk that company will conduct no specialists hiring of low standards. There is moderate risk of rising disputes with the local work force, but high turnover for the workers is expected. However, what is a matter of concern is that there is a significant risk that automated processes used by the company are not safe. In such a case, higher management should look into this matter and corrective action should be taken. Cars produced by the company are not environment friendly and there is s significant risk that environment will be damaged, and small emissions of CO2 are insignificant. Company is expecting that there is a negligible risk that cars will produce noise pollution. There is also a moderate risk of work breakdown, and expectancy of machine burnout is significant. In addition, there is risk that extensive high scrapped goods will also be produced, and stationary wastage will be slow. There is a moderate risk that new cars will break down; therefore, medium management should take this seriously, as this can work against the reputation of the company, if lots of customer report breakdown, so company has to evaluate the implication of this rather seriously. Reputation of the company can be effected by the late deliveries as it is highly expected to deliver late. There is a negligible risk that company will deliver the product with small part missing from the cars. However, there is a negligible risk that medium parts of the car will be missing. In other words, it is unlikely that company will launch the cars without its medium parts in place. In such a case, higher senior management will look into the matter. Finally, and most importantly, it is expected that quality of the car will deteriorate significantly, and there is significant risk of this therefore, company has to formulate the strategy to counter this problem, because it can tarnish the reputation of the company in the long-run. Factors Persons Not Trained Low Standard Hiring Local Workforce Disputes Large Employee Turnover Automated Process not safe Environment Small CO2 Emissions Noise Pollution Dumping Waste Not Green Damaging the environment Assets Stationary wastage Cheap parts wastage Work breakdown High scraped goods Machinery Burnt Reputation Small part missing Medium part missing A piece of inventory missing Quality Deterioration Late Delivery Insignificant Negligible Moderate Extensive Significant Likelihood Chance Probability Would definitely occur 80% - 100% Certain Can occur 65% - 80% Likely May or may not occur 35% - 65% Possible it would not occur 15% - 35% Unlikely Has the least probability 0% - 15% Rare Very High – Immediate Action Required by a top level Executive High – Senior Management official needed Medium – Management responsibility Required Low - only requires Monitoring Activity Very Low – Managed by Routine Procedures Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Automobile Project Planning Requirements Expertise in Automobiles Transport and customer requirements Requirements documentation Resources Experienced Engineers Good experience with quality Resources Documentation Gaps Studying Requirements Documentation Studying Resources Documentation Gaps Acquired Design Automobile Quality Features Design integrated and ready Raw Material Components from Shrewsbury Castings from Ironbridge Seals from Birmingham Information documented about Raw Materials for design Process Automation in process and Raw material Delivery Trained Workforce Automated Process Design Documented Initial Operations Venue Management I40 Manufacturing Site Purchase Make Necessary modifications and installations Venue is set for Use Workforce Workforce Training on lean Skills Intel on local workforce Hiring of required Workforce Hired and trained workforce ready Transportation Contracts Information on Suppliers’ Transporters Information on local Constraints and edges Telford Logistics hub Operations Inventory Management Just in time inventory management system Setting KPIs for Inventory Analysis of Inventory Key Moments Workforce Management Evaluating Workforce Capacity Set Appropriate KPIs Analyze Workforce’s performance Process Management Evaluate Process Performance Set Process KPIs Analyze Process Performance in terms of KPIs Post Operation Results Compilation Results in terms of Inventory, Workforce and Processes Results in terms of Gaps Improvements in all phases of manufacturing Quality Compare Quality Parameters with already set standards Set and cover the gaps if negative Quality Assurance Guaranteed Finalization Check if all requirements are met Forward the finished inventory to client References BIBLIOGRAPHY 'Defining value chain architectures: Linking strategic value creation to operational supply chain design', International Journal of Production Economics, pp. 230-238. greatoperation (2013) What is Operations Management. Larson, E.W..a.C.F.G. (2014) Project Management: The Managerial Process with MS Project. Liu, X.e.a. (2014) Finding the Optimal Aeration Profiles and DO Profiles in a Plug-flow Biological Wastewater Treatment Reactor with A Theoretical Approach., [Online]. Mohammadi, S.S.S.a.B.M. (2014) 'Scenario-based stochastic operation management of microgrid including wind, photovoltaic, micro-turbine, fuel cell and energy storage devices', International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, pp. 525-535. Pérez-Fortes, M.e.a. (2014) 'Optimization of pre-treatment selection for the use of woody waste in co-combustion plants', Chemical Engineering Research and Design, pp. 1539-1562. Rosemann, M.a.J.v.B. (2015) 'The six core elements of business process management', in Rosemann, M.a.J.v.B. Handbook on Business Process Management, Berlin: Springer.

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