Project Management Practices during the The iBorrow Project in Canterbury Christ Church University

Canterbury Christ Church University has adopted a unique project for the first time in history that it decided to establish building worth 35 million pounds. Moreover, the project included distribution of two hundred laptops in the building for learning opportunities for the students of university. In this paper, the project has been analyzed based on the project management principles. For this purpose, the stakeholder analysis, communication plan, human resource planning, time duration analysis, client requirements, critical path analysis, overview of the project management practices and personal reflections has been made in the paper. It is found that the iBorrow Project has employed many project management practices those can be identified easily. However, it has been found that the project has been success and the results have been effective as per the objectives and purpose of the project. It is however; found that critical path analysis and risk analysis should be investigated vigorously so that any contingency can be managed effectively.

Project Management Practices during the The iBorrow Project in Canterbury Christ Church University Name ABC Date: Executive SummaryCanterbury Christ Church University has adopted a unique project for the first time in history that it decided to establish building worth 35 million pounds. Moreover, the project included distribution of two hundred laptops in the building for learning opportunities for the students of university. In this paper, the project has been analyzed based on the project management principles. For this purpose, the stakeholder analysis, communication plan, human resource planning, time duration analysis, client requirements, critical path analysis, overview of the project management practices and personal reflections has been made in the paper. It is found that the iBorrow Project has employed many project management practices those can be identified easily. However, it has been found that the project has been success and the results have been effective as per the objectives and purpose of the project. It is however; found that critical path analysis and risk analysis should be investigated vigorously so that any contingency can be managed effectively. Overall, the project management practices have been key for the success of the project. In the end, it is recommended to focus on the risk analysis and critical path analysis so that any uncertainty can be avoided. Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Executive Summary PAGEREF _Toc407723998 \h 21-Introduction PAGEREF _Toc407723999 \h 51.1 Aim and Purpose of Report: PAGEREF _Toc407724000 \h 61.2 Structure of Report: PAGEREF _Toc407724001 \h 62.0 Background: PAGEREF _Toc407724002 \h 62.1 Introduction to the section PAGEREF _Toc407724003 \h 62.2 Purpose of the Project Planning PAGEREF _Toc407724004 \h 72.3 Aims and Objectives of the Project PAGEREF _Toc407724005 \h 82.4 About the Organization PAGEREF _Toc407724006 \h 82.5 Judgment on complexity of the Project PAGEREF _Toc407724007 \h 93.0 Critical Analysis of Project Tools PAGEREF _Toc407724008 \h 93.1 Introduction to the Section: PAGEREF _Toc407724009 \h 93.2 Tool 1: PAGEREF _Toc407724010 \h 103.2.1 Stakeholder Analysis PAGEREF _Toc407724011 \h 103.3 Tool 2: PAGEREF _Toc407724012 \h 103.3.1 Communication Plan Analysis: PAGEREF _Toc407724013 \h 103.4 Tool 3: PAGEREF _Toc407724014 \h 113.4.1 Human Resource Planning PAGEREF _Toc407724015 \h 113.5 Tool 4: PAGEREF _Toc407724016 \h 113.5.1 Gantt chart: Time Duration Analysis PAGEREF _Toc407724017 \h 113.6 Tool 5: PAGEREF _Toc407724018 \h 123.6.1 Client Requirements PAGEREF _Toc407724019 \h 123.7 Tool 6: PAGEREF _Toc407724020 \h 123.7.1 Critical Path Analysis PAGEREF _Toc407724021 \h 123.8 Tool 7 PAGEREF _Toc407724022 \h 133.8.1 Risk Analysis (Table 1) PAGEREF _Toc407724023 \h 133.9 Tool 8 PAGEREF _Toc407724024 \h 143.9.1 Work packages of the project PAGEREF _Toc407724025 \h 143.10 Tool 9 PAGEREF _Toc407724026 \h 153.10.1 Gantt chart (Table 3) PAGEREF _Toc407724027 \h 153.11 Tool 10 PAGEREF _Toc407724028 \h 153.11.1 Overview of Project Management Practices in the iBorrow Project PAGEREF _Toc407724029 \h 153.12 Tool 11 PAGEREF _Toc407724030 \h 163.12.1 Project Budget PAGEREF _Toc407724031 \h 164.0 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc407724032 \h 175.0 RECOMMENDATIONS: PAGEREF _Toc407724033 \h 17Personal Reflection PAGEREF _Toc407724034 \h 19Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc407724035 \h 20Appendix PAGEREF _Toc407724036 \h 23 Table of Figures TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1 PAGEREF _Toc407457520 \h 4Figure 2 PAGEREF _Toc407457521 \h 16Figure 3 PAGEREF _Toc407457522 \h 24Figure 4 PAGEREF _Toc407457523 \h 25Figure 5 PAGEREF _Toc407457524 \h 27 1-IntroductionThe iBorrow Project of Canterbury Christ Church University is unique in its essence, as it has received praise from different corners of the society. This project has been unique in its nature as it aimed to provide information technology to the students of university. The project was based on three steps including Borrow, Use, and Return. Figure 1lefttopSource: https://www.ucisa.ac.uk/~/media/Files/members/awards/excellence/2009/CCCU%20pdf.ashx The start date of the project was October 1, 2008 and end date was March 31, 2010, thus it was against the stipulated period. Project Director was Dr. Keith Gwilym and Project Manager was Phil Poole. This project was an excellent and successful example of institutional innovations as the university aimed to provide the students facility of laptops for their use. The objectives of the project set at providing thin-client notebook PC to the students so that they can access the internet and Standard university notebook applications. Along with this straightforward objective, others milestones expected from the project included to be able to deploy and test geo-location tool, to increase the knowledge sharing, and other organizational level objectives CITATION can14 \l 1033 (canterbury, 2014). 1.1 Aim and Purpose of Report:During the year 2008 and 2009, Canterbury Christ Church University got involved in its single biggest construction project in its history. This was not merely a construction project; however, the aim of the university was to provide ICT for students’ use and they were given the mobile PCs so that they can use them for their learning process in the building. The cost of the construction was 35 million pounds. The building was named as Augustine House. In this paper, the project has been evaluated and its success is assessed in the project management perspectives. Before going into the project management aspects in detail, it is imperative to given complete background of the project. CITATION can14 \l 1033 (canterbury, 2014) 1.2 Structure of Report:The project was started with the evaluation of thin client technology and location tracking system. Proper project plan was used under this project and thin client notebooks are considered to support web browsing, related applications, and access to IT resources of the university. It is included in the plane to evaluate, purchase, and deploy the location awareness software. Then the evaluation report was part of the project plan in the end. CITATION The10 \l 1033 (The iBorrow , 2010)2.0 Background:Before going into detail the project management perspective of the iBorrow Project, it is good to start with the background of the Canterbury Christ Church University. The project team has described in the project manual that Canterbury Christ Church University is the largest higher learning center in Kent, UK. The disciplines in which the university gives degrees include teaching, nursing, health, social care, and police services. The project management team has considered the needs and requirements of the university during the delivery of the project. 2.1 Introduction to the sectionThe building of Augustine House library and students’ service center was constructed in the Canterbury Christ Church University with an aim to provide the students with the environment friendly for the learning and knowledge sharing. The ICT facilities were provided to the students through the project. The funding of the project is the crucial part of the project planning and iBorrow project was financed by JISC and CCCU under the Institutional Innovation Program (IIP), in which all of them were united in making efforts. The aim of the project was to develop self-service loan system so that borrowing a notebook within the building is as simple as borrowing a book CITATION can14 \l 1033 (canterbury, 2014). Wi-Fi was used to provide the internet connection to those notebooks. Professor Betty Collis was the consultant of the project that highlighted the research opportunities out of this project. The project won the 2009 UCISA Award for Excellence and shortlisted in the Times Higher Education Awards 2010 under two categories. In the following, the analysis of the iBorrow Project has been conducted in light of the project management practices employed during the project. 2.2 Purpose of the Project PlanningThe iBorrow Project has employed the project management practices quite successfully. However, the project is different from other project management initiatives undertaken in the university settings. Usually, the universities are engaged in the project those are for the construction of the building, library related projects, digital equipments etc. However, the iBorrow project has been fundamentally unique in its essence as it is profound example of IT related project that has been proposed in the settings of a university. In the academic settings, the iBorrow project may be said the role model. Critical path analysis in the project could have been improved in the project. The term critical path analysis has been used only in the technical report of the project. It may be used in more broader and vigorous way in the project. The activities that come in the critical path analysis could have been clearly differentiated so that importance to those activities may be given in way that is more effective. Moreover, the use of critical path activities may also contain the knowledge of interrelated project tasks. The components of iBorrow project are diversified and technology part may be considered as central but it is not overall. The project planning depicts some interesting facts as the focus of the project has been allocated on very minute aspects as well. The security staff has been employed and the security staff has been given much importance in the project management plan. It is because of the possibility of the theft of the laptops. For this purpose, the massive campaign was also part of the project that fosters on the immorality associated with theft and the low commercial value of the iBorrow laptop devices as they have very small hard drive in it. The taps those are put on the books are effective tools to prevent the theft of the books. These iBorrow laptop devices also bear three tapes and these are effective tool to prevent theft. 2.3 Aims and Objectives of the ProjectThe project outcomes are consistent with the university overall objectives and aims. The university will gain the understanding of the pattern of use of laptops by the students. The trend may be further classified based on different student groups those include full time or part time students, male or female, and the students group based on age. This information will help the university to evaluate the outcomes of the project as how the students use the Augustine House Learning Center. The scope of the project was to provide computing services to the students. The provision of thin client system and location awareness technology involved the interests of different stakeholders and the potential for collaboration was evaluated. It was ensured to take all of the stakeholders on board those include students, academic staff, researchers, and service staff those were involved in provision of the project. The project is broad in its scope and application as it is not merely based on laptop distribution. In fact, the aim of the project is to make learning space for the students of Canterbury Christ Church University by spreading the knowledge intensive atmosphere in the buildings. The laptops are merely the tool those have been utilized to achieve the objective of learning culture in the building that has been constructed. The scope of the project is beyond the distribution of laptops. 2.4 About the OrganizationStudents are the top stakeholders of the project. Among other stakeholders of the project academic staff, other users of the facility, the computing service, the learning and teaching enhancement unit, library staff and services, the project manager of the project, JISC, and different other institutions in the higher education sector are included. In the stakeholder analysis, these stakeholders will be taken into account. The laptops used in the project are put in the cabinets with capacity of twenty laptops. In the building ten cabinets are evenly distributed and they are enough for total 200 laptops for use. The charged laptop is used by the student and on return when the laptop is put in the cabinet then that is charged again for future use. Sometimes student put the laptops on the tables those are put back into the cabinet by security staff. Some of the issues are also major concerns for the persons involved in the project those include the issue of theft and accidental removal of laptop from the cabinet. For security purposes, the iBorrow devices are put with the three pieces of the tape that alarm when the laptop is misused by any user or transferred in wrong way. It has been publicized that iBorrow devices do not functions outside of the premises of the building that is the message for those who might want to use them for wrong purposes. Moreover, the purchase price of these devises is too low that professional thieves do not have attraction in its theft. Therefore, the ratio of theft has been very low in the project CITATION Men12 \l 1033 (Meng, 2012). 2.5 Judgment on complexity of the ProjectProvision of thin client notebooks to students is the top most important CSF of the project. Then thin client laptops will assist in development of manageable service environment, more flexibility than fixed PCs, location awareness software provides the accuracy, the pedagogical focus of the iBorrow Project, and personal development and professional satisfaction of the project staff are among the critical success factors set for the project. 3.0 Critical Analysis of Project Tools3.1 Introduction to the Section:The iBorrow Project reveals many aspects of project management. The project was initiated in 2008 and continued until 2010. Moreover, the benefits of the project are not subject to limits of time and the students of the university are yielding benefits from the project outcomes. The critical analysis of the project contains the stakeholder analysis, time duration analysis, human resource planning, critical path analysis among other project management techniques. 3.2 Tool 1:3.2.1 Stakeholder AnalysisThe main stakeholders of the project include the students, the academic staff and other users of the learning center and the library. These are the primary stakeholders of the iBorrow Project other important stakeholders that are covered by the project include the Learning & Teaching Enhancement Unit, the Project Manager for the Augustine House Development, the head of Library & Learning Resources, PVC Student Services, The Project Management Group the JISC and other various institutes that are in the HE sector. Therefore, the stakeholders of this project relate to very diverse areas. Main stakeholders of the iBorrow Project were the end users those are students of the university and the financing body that is JISC and CCCU. They financed the project under the institutional innovation program. Moreover, academic staff, other users of the facility, the computing service, the learning and teaching enhancement unit, library staff and services, the project manager of the project, JISC, and different other institutions in the higher education sector are included in the stakeholders of the project. The project has been phenomenal success and the reason of the success was due to carefully addressing the importance of stakeholders CITATION Jep09 \l 1033 (Jepsen & Eskerod, 2009). Students, academic staff, and other users were considered in the stakeholder analysis of the project, it is ensured from the students to contribute in the working group membership, and periodic meetings were organized to communicate with them. The computing service, the learning and teaching enhancement unit, library and learning services communicate in their respective departments. CITATION Cro11 \l 1033 (Crosby, 2011). 3.3 Tool 2:3.3.1 Communication Plan Analysis:There has been given quite importance to the communication within the stakeholders of the project. It has been ensured that all of the stakeholders can communicate with the project teams so that the project outcomes can be possible. It has been ensured in the iBorrow Project that students and faculty should communicate through working group membership. The students, the end users, and stakeholders have been communicated through publicity how they can use laptops. Moreover, it is also communicated that they should not go for theft as the iBorrow laptops have low commercial worth than usual laptops, those are expensive. In the year, 2009 when the project was underway the periodic meetings were organized with students and academic staff to hold meetings in months of September and January CITATION Paa03 \l 1033 (Paasivaara, 2003). 3.4 Tool 3:3.4.1 Human Resource PlanningThe human resources are crucial for the success of any project. The university is such an environment where individual benefits to the students and faculty are of crucial importance. Especially in the research based project, as iBorrow has been the individual concentration is of crucial importance. During the project, the contribution of the faculty staff and students is similar what their roles have been in the routine settings. The staff involved in the project included head of computing services, director of learning and teaching, learning technologist, network analyst, user technology development manager, principal research fellow, and technical consultants. These staff is responsible for consistent and continuous success of the project. Moreover, the importance of security staff and overall that staff that is usually necessary for ongoing operations of the learning center included in the human resource planning related with the project CITATION Ulr13 \l 1033 (Ulrich, 2013). 3.5 Tool 4:3.5.1 Gantt chart: Time Duration AnalysisThe iBorrow Project has been under control measure like any project. It must have to under time and budget limits. As it is discussed above that for the construction of library and learning center, 35 million pounds were allocated for the construction of building. The nest plan was that iBorrow laptop devices were to be distributed in the building under the project. However, under this head, the time duration analysis has been conducted and it is found that iBorrow project has been under the time and budget limitations strictly. Gantt chart makes use of bars those represent the time duration of the activities of the project. The time associated with the activity is represented by the length of the bar. In this way, the project is remained under the specified period. With this advantage, the importance Gantt chart in the project management is felt. This ensures the time efficiency and compliance so that project ends in time CITATION Ahs10 \l 1033 (Ahsan & Gunawan, 2010). During the iBorrow Project, the Gantt chart was developed in the early stages and it has been followed in an effective manner during the course of the project. Among other activities those are included in the Gantt chart were supply of iBorrow laptops, for this purpose allocation of budget of 17 thousand pounds, and further investment in the infrastructure to provide adequate density wireless nodes and support tracking features was set at 64 thousand pounds. 3.6 Tool 5:3.6.1 Client RequirementsThe client requirements are important in the project management activities because the project is initiated by keeping him in view. All of the stakeholder analysis, time management, resources and human resource planning is undertaken to provide the clients value from the project. In the iBorrow project the client was Canterbury Christ Church University and further stakeholders were associated with this client first, then their expectations are associated with the project. In this way, the project team has been subject to the wishes and desires of the client. The requirement of the client, i.e. Canterbury Christ Church University was to build state of the art building in time that was specified for the project. Furthermore, the requirements of the client of the project have been to provide two hundred iBorrow laptops and related auxiliary infrastructure CITATION Cic13 \l 1033 (Cicirello, 2013). During the iBorrow Project, the client requirements were addressed through the client technical report compiled by Geoff Kimmons and wireless technical report was compiled by Chris French. These reports provided the footsteps for the project team to follow them so that the client requirement can be achieved. Quite successfully, the project teams have been successful in its motives and intentions with the help of the knowledge of the clients’ requirements. 3.7 Tool 6:3.7.1 Critical Path AnalysisCritical path analysis is critically important in the project management so that the activities may be sorted out with respect to their importance and significance. Critical path analysis in the iBorrow project outlined those activities that were to be completed inevitably. Otherwise, the project may not be success. Before addressing the critical path analysis of the project, it is worth to be noted that this analysis specifies the activities those are most important for the success and efficient results for the project CITATION Ajm10 \l 1033 (Ajmal, Helo, & Kekäle, 2010). The activities included in the critical path analysis have been the timely construction of the building in the Canterbury Christ Church University so that two hundred laptops may be distributed in the building. Moreover, the layout has been finalized by keeping in view the use of laptops in the building. Moreover, the technical assistance was also critically important because the project is heavily based on the provision of technological solutions to the students. The funding from the financer has also been quite critically important. CITATION Lea14 \l 1033 (Leach, 2014). 3.8 Tool 73.8.1 Risk Analysis (Table 1)The risks, that are associated with this project and their mitigation is very necessary in order to achieve the purpose of this project for the stakeholders. The risks that are associated with this project include the limitation of the availability of the staff, loss of the key staff, and late delivery of the Augustine House, limited experience of the staff in association with the skills and technology usage and limited training. When there is estimation of staff availability then it can be stated that staff will be hired and that must be talented because this can increase the validity and success of the project. There is also reduction of cost because the management will invest less in mitigation of efforts. To reduce this risk, the company in contingency situations will focus on consultant staff and this will be helpful for filling of vacancies. Other risks that are associated with this project include the emerging technologies, the security of the equipment, the ethical issues that are associated with the usage of the technology in association with the monitoring the work of the students. To mitigate these risks, measures that can be taken include, if the staff is not available then the suitable replacements should be there, staff on contract basis would be appropriate to fill the vacancies. It is fact that, the company has to deliver at timely manner. Therefore, there is full implementation data-gathering phase. The internal staff has the limited thinking and the limited experience because they are assessing project through limited point of view and limited resources. Therefore, appropriate planning ahead of any issues, needs to be done in order to mitigate the issues. A couple of experiences project manager should be employed in order to cater the issue of low experience of the staff. This would also allow tackling the issue of emerging technology as the external project manager would be working up close with the technology providers. On the other hand, the outsource employees are seeing the project with open point of view. The crucial part of risks is emerging technologies because it is changing rapidly because of hackers and internet threats. The location tracking system would improve the security of the equipment while creating awareness about the ethical concerns would allow resolving the issue of ethical concerns associated with the usage of technology in order to monitor the students. The security equipment will be used to track through passive security tag. There is usage of sound alarm to leave secure area. The ethical issues enhance risks at large level. The students will be engaged through outset to discuss outcomes and roles to change practices in provisions of resources. 3.9 Tool 83.9.1 Work packages of the project (Table 2) According to the table 2 in the appendices, there are various packages of the project including the inception, project planning, management and evaluation, project research, development and piloting for the awareness of the wireless locations, development and piloting of the thin clients of the software and hardware, deployment and dissemination. Each of the work packages of the project are assigned with scope, dates and duration, deliverables, users and locations. The details are provided in the appendices. The purpose of these work packages is to plan and allocate the resources so that the maximum utilization of these resources can be achieved in attaining the objectives and goals of the project itself. The entire project is divided within the different phases or packages to increase the quality and authenticity. Through the analysis of the first package, there is a need of at least two months. These months will be scarifying for the liaison between the iBorrow and JISC staff. The package two demands the 18 months because all timelines and agree responsibilities are given and divided within staff along with proper understanding of staff. When duties and responsibilities are assigned then evaluation criteria will also be suggested to assess the moments. The project consultants and managers along with working group will play an important role. The third package is based on project research and this demands the 18 month. There is need of ethical approval and deployment phases. The IT usage data can be used for Library environment, which is gained within pilot phase. The research also deals with technical and pedagogic aspects for the project. Package 4 demands 9 months and the most important thing within this phase is procurement decision. The wi-fi set up will be used here for the evaluation of technical and data issues in surrounding locations. Phase 5 or package 5 is based on technical paper briefing and interim report prepared by the staff will be used for the assessment of project. The evaluation system, technical and piloting development will be conducted through the computing project officers. Tracking systems are in the Augustine House. The computing services project officers’ deployment is associated here for project success. The package 7 is based on work and findings and this can be through iBorrow throughout and beyond funding period of project. The external consultant and project management team is involved here. 3.10 Tool 93.10.1 Gantt chart (Table 3)In the appendices, table 3 shows the Gantt chart of this project and according to this chart; project was started in July 2013 and completed in August 2013. During this period all activities like project design, assigning of teams, setup budget, measurement of results, comparison of project with standards, appraisement of project and finishing of results are included. The project-design demands at least four days because the design needs accuracy. In addition to this, the understanding of project by team members demands the more than 5 days. If the team could not understand the project and their assigned tasks in depth then they could not deliver quality of results. The project demands efficient budget in this stage. The financial analysts will better articulate and play important role at this stage. The setting of benchmark is compulsory to aware the stakeholders and this also demands at least 6 and ½ day. The evaluation criteria to maintain accuracy is also crucial and there is need to measure results effectively, which demands 5 days at least. The comparison and appraisal of project needs 4.5 and 5 days. 3.11 Tool 103.11.1 Overview of Project Management Practices in the iBorrow ProjectThe iBorrow Project has been success and its results have been fundamentally effective as it assisted the students and it gave the university many distinctions from various societies and organizations. The iBorrow project has been successful because it has employed various project management strategies and principles in it. Some of the project management strategies have been utilized in the above analysis. The stakeholder analysis, Time duration analysis, human resource planning, critical path analysis, client’s requirements have been utilized in the project very much. It is found that iBorrow Project has followed the footprints of usual project management principles. It is good to see that project team of the iBorrow Project has employed the basic principles in clear manner that is good case study for the students of project management in Canterbury Christ Church University and all of those who are getting education of project management in other institutions. 3.12 Tool 113.12.1 Project BudgetBudget of on iBorrow Project has been presented in tabular form. Figure 2Sources of Table: http://www.hull.ac.uk/golddust/project_documents/Project_Plan.pdf 4.0 ConclusionIt is concluded that the iBorrow Project has been ideal example to understand the project management principles. The analysis of the project with respect to project management techniques has been effective in order to build the understanding. In fact, the iBorrow Project has followed the footsteps those are written in project management. The objective of the paper is to analyze the project management practices undertaken in the project. It is found that iBorrow Project has followed the practices successfully that is why the activities can be extracted to name under the project management. Moreover, the stakeholder analysis, human resource planning, time duration analysis, client requirements, critical path analysis, and personal reflections have been the part of the paper. Based on these analyses, recommendations have been made as what should iBorrow do in the future to be successful more beneficial for the stakeholders and clients. It is concluded that iBorrow Project has conducted the stakeholder analysis and human resource planning but it did not conduct the risk analysis and critical path analysis that should be done in order to increase the credibility of the project. In the end, the recommendations have been made and the focus of the recommendations was to bring improvements in the risk analysis, critical path analysis, and suggestions to broaden the use of the project across the universities and organizations. Therefore, iBorrow Project has been unique example and it should be further broadened so that its impact can be felt on more systems and organizations. In future, the circle of iBorrow Project should be extended with the aims and objectives of this example that has been materialized and has been successful. In the end, it has been recommended that such projects must add to the existing literature as well. It is because the iBorrow Project can be said to be the case study that can be applied on the Canterbury Christ Church University and the project management activities. 5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS:The aims and objectives of the project have been to provide the students with the project in an easy way as they get books from the library and the system would have the ability to be integrated with the similar systems of other universities. However, the information is largely based on what are the intentions of the projects and what are the activities to achieve those intentions. The supplier side and procurement aspect of the project has been totally ignored from the scene. It is not quite efficient approach of the project management team. Large part of the project success is based on the relationship of the project team with the vendor or supplier of the technical parts of the project. The procurement aspect has been neglected and it can be suggested from the fact that project has faced some interruptions during the accomplishment of the project. Wireless node installations, acquisitions, and installation of wireless network components are the activities those depend heavily on the procurement department of the project. Therefore, the team could have been focused on this side more vigorously CITATION Sri14 \l 1033 (Srinivasan, 2014). As it is evident from the design of the project, activities are quite diversified and contained multi aspects, therefore, the detailed purchasing and procurement plans must be there in the project management principles and techniques those are employed in iBorrow project. The information management can be employed in the Future Project management activities. As there has been scarcity of information on some of the project management activities therefore, the cost and time management may affect and project may exceed time limit that is specified in the original project management plan. One of the limitations of the project is overlooking the risk analysis. The legal use has not been given much importance by the project management planners. There are many filtering methods those can make the legal use of the laptops possible. In future, the iBorrow Project should contain annual budget for the measures to ensure such filtering. Moreover, the risk analysis must extend its boundaries by preventing network dangers those include securing from infection from external programming sources, overload issues, bandwidth related issues, and fair use of policy of the laptops. It is recommended that enhanced risk analysis should be made so that iBorrow project may be possible. Moreover, it is also recommended that the project may be planned further and the success of the project should be used for the systems and universities other than the Canterbury Christ Church University. The iBorrow Project was not seen in the history of universities. If it can be successful then the circle of the project should be widened so that more universities and libraries can go along the way. In other words, the scope of the project should be extended in the future so that its implications may be broadened into the future. Recommendations for the iBorrow Project revolve around three areas for improvement those include detailed risk analysis of the project, detailed strategy for the future, and detailed critical path analysis for the project that contain every diversifying aspect of the project including procurement strategy as well. Personal ReflectionThe project management practices those are employed in the iBorrow Project have been very evident. These practices of the project management activities in this project can be found easily in the project. It gives the indication that the application of project management practices is real phenomenon and it is not merely the topic of books. Therefore, I believe that the project has rich source to understand the project management activities and principles. The project has given rise to my personal knowledge that how simply one activity driven project can have such a diversifying activities. The iBorrow Project can be said as the one activity project that it intends to deliver laptops to the students of Canterbury Christ Church University. In my view, the stakeholder analysis is quite important for the success of the project. The iBorrow Project has given much importance to the stakeholder analysis. It has aligned the activities of the project according to the stakeholders’ expectations. The stakeholders those have been included in the project gave me the awareness how the project need to be concerned with the interests of the stakeholders. In my view, the client is the most important stakeholders of any project and the clients must be understood in detail. Apparently, the client of the iBorrow Project is the Canterbury Christ Church University but it is found that university has many sub sets those must be considered to know the stakeholders. The stakeholders of the iBorrow Project include the faculty, students, and the funding authority of the project. In my view, if the stakeholders of the project are considered in an efficient way then the corporate social responsibility, sustainability, and other aspects may be achieved that are guarantee for the value for the end users and the society. If these are considered then the perception of the project can increase to the maximum in the society. The communication and risk analysis has been very important part of the project. It is found that project lacks proper risk management plan and it focuses on single aspect of the risk plan. Moreover, the communication plan is there that decreases the ambiguity and makes the plan more clear and transparent. In my view, the project management teams should focus on the communication plan so that the risk may be mitigated and the project may be responsive to the wider market. Human resource planning and time duration analyses that are undertaken under the project have been quite informative for me. If the human resource planning is undertaken in an effective way then the possibilities for better project may be extracted in nice manner. In fact, these human resources make the project management possible and if they consider integration among them then the outcome of the project would be ideal as in the case of the iBorrow Project, the success is achieved. Moreover, Gantt chart use in the project has been quite useful as it gave the idea how the time can be managed in an efficient manner. Moreover, the project is limited time activity thus the time management should be in the heart of the project. Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahsan, K., & Gunawan, I. (2010). Analysis of cost and schedule performance of international development projects. International Journal of Project Management , 28 (1), 68-78. Ajmal, M., Helo, P., & Kekäle, T. (2010). Critical factors for knowledge management in project business. Journal of Knowledge Management , 14 (1), 156-168. Bowen, P., Cattel, K. S., Hall, K. A., Edwards, P. J., & Pearl, R. G. (2012). Perceptions of time, cost and quality management on building projects. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building , 2 (2), 48-56. canterbury. (2014). iBorrow laptop borrowing scheme. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.canterbury.ac.uk/projects/iborrow/ Choo, A. S. (2014). Defining Problems Fast and Slow: The U‐shaped Effect of Problem Definition Time on Project Duration. Production and Operations Management . Cicirello, V. A. (2013). Experiences with a real projects for real clients course on software engineering at a liberal arts institution. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges , 28 (6), 50-56. Crosby, B. L. (2011). Stakeholder Analysis: A Vital Tool for Strategic Managers. Retrieved December 11, 2014, from http://www.msiworldwide.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/IPC_Stakeholder_Analysis_A_Vital_Tool_for_Strategic_Managers.pdf Ellery, D. I. (2009). Objectives of the iBorrow Project. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CFAQFjAI&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ucisa.ac.uk%2F~%2Fmedia%2FFiles%2Fmembers%2Fawards%2Fexcellence%2F2009%2FCCCU%2520pdf.ashx&ei=okmEVN-wDsisU5fSgPAP&usg=AFQjCNHROLfbO9T1Kfj Jepsen, A. L., & Eskerod, P. (2009). Stakeholder analysis in projects: Challenges in using current guidelines in the real world. International Journal of Project Management , 27 (4), 335-343. Kerzner, H. R. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons. Kumar, A., & Kaur, P. (2010). A new method for fuzzy critical path analysis in project networks with a new representation of triangular fuzzy numbers. Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal , 5 (10), 1442-1466. Kumar, S., & Wallace, C. (2014). Communication strategies for mentoring in software development projects. In Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering , June, 111-114. Leach, L. P. (2014). Critical chain project management. Artech House. Meng, X. (2012). The effect of relationship management on project performance in construction. International journal of project management , 30 (2), 188-198. Paasivaara, M. (2003). Communication needs, practices and supporting structures in global inter-organizational software development projects. In International Workshop on Global Software Development , 59-63. Srinivasan, R. (2014). Managing Projects. In Strategic Business Decisions , 279-292. The iBorrow . (2010). 4Learning, spaces and technology - exploring the concept. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.canterbury.ac.uk/projects/iborrow/documents/book/05-The%20iBorrow%20project.pdf Ulrich, D. (2013). Human resource champions: The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Harvard Business Press. AppendixTable 1: Risk Analysis of iBorrow Project Figure 3Source: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/institutionalinnovation/iborrowprojectplanred.pdf Table 2: Work packages of the Project Figure 4 Source: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/institutionalinnovation/iborrowprojectplanred.pdf Table 3: Gantt chart Figure 5Source: http://www.holi300.com/project-organization/zero-budget-project-management-philosophy-and-tools-for-voluntary-student-projects/

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